Japan may help Sri Lanka buy P-3C maritime surveillance aircraft, apart from persuading India and the US to make Sri Lanka a base for strategic maritime surveillance over the Indian Ocean Region.
These are indicated by Japanese security expert, Dr. Satoru Nagao, who is now Research Fellow at the Colombo-based Institute of National Security Studies (INSS), in his latest paper entitled: “Japan can be the best partner for Sri Lanka and India.”
Nagao says: “There is already a Japanese-Sri Lankan project for Maritime Safety Capability Improvement worth approximately 1.8 billion yen or US$ 16.5 million, which includes the provision of two patrol vessels to the Sri Lankan Coast Guard (SLCG).”
“There is also a possibility of Sri Lanka buying patrol planes, the P-3Cs, radars, and sensors to track objects and events in the Indian Ocean,” he adds.
Speaking of the possibility of US, Japan, India and Sri Lanka setting up a maritime communication centre to watch activities in the Indian Ocean, Nagao he says that if this is set up “ it would be easy for the four countries to remain abreast of events in the Indian Ocean.”
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Furthermore, if Sri Lanka operates Japan’s P-3C patrol planes, Japan, Sri Lanka, India, and US would be using similar equipment for patrol planes. Therefore, the equipment will present other opportunities for Japan – Sri Lanka – India–US co-operation in using and upgrading equipment, and for sharing information collected by the patrol planes, Nagao argues.
Earlier this month, Japanese Prime Minister, Shinzo Abe, had suggested to the visiting Sri Lankan Prime Minister Ranil Wickremsinghe, that Sri Lanka should join the US-India-Japan Malabar Naval Exercise.
According to Indian sources, Sri Lanka is likely to be an “observer” in the July 2017 Malabar exercise, and may become a full participant in the next exercise.
Japan is sending its largest warship, the helicopter carrier Izumo for the 2017 exercise – the first overseas foray for the largest Japanese warship. Significantly, the Izumo will be docking in Colombo en route to India for the Malabar exercise.
However, Sri Lanka has not officially reacted to the invitation to join the Malabar exercise.
Be that as it may, Nagao has suggested the start of a “Japan-Sri Lanka-India strategic trilateral dialogue to share information, better identify Sri Lanka’s needs, and choose courses of co-operation or support.”
Japan’s Stakes in Sri Lanka
In his latest report to the Pathfinder Foundation, former Sri Lankan navy chief, Adm.Jayanath Colombage, says that analyzing the country of origin of foreign warships visiting the Port of Colombo from 2008 to 2017, it is observed that 65 Japanese Maritime Self Defense Force (MSDF) ships had arrived in Sri Lankan ports, mainly the Port of Colombo.
“This is rather a high number and second only to Indian warships visiting Sri Lanka,” he notes.
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Explaining Japan’s interest in Indian Ocean security, Adm. Colombage says that with total dependence on foreign sources for its oil needs and with the sea routes under increasing threat from the Chinese, Japan has become the “most energy insecure nations” in the world.
“The increased MSDF activities in the Indian Ocean can be attributed to their heavy dependency on crude oil,” Colombage explains.
Japan is not only converting its Self Defense Forces into regular armed forces, but is also suing up political, economic and military alliances with key countries in the in East-West trade route. Japan is currently the most energetic champion of an India-Japan-US-Sri Lanka strategic maritime alliance.
India is Cornerstone
Relations with India is the cornerstone of Japan’s Indian Ocean maritime security policy.
Japan has concluded several security agreements and treaties with India including the ‘Joint Declaration on Security Cooperation between Japan and India’ in 2008. Japan now participates in several multi-lateral and bi-lateral naval and coast-guard exercises involving India, such as ‘Malabar’ and ‘JIMEX’.
According to Adm.Colombage, Japan initially moved to cultivate Sri Lanka because it considers the Port of Colombo as a convenient transit and rest and recuperation harbor for its counter piracy operations, . “This is the reason for the visit by a large number of MSDF ships to this port. Japan has now stationed a Defense Attaché in Colombo, who is coordinating visits of MSDF vessels and other military cooperation with Sri Lanka,” he says.
In 2017, for the first time, Japan’s MSDF participated in the ‘Pacific Partnership” a multilateral exercise off Hambantota with the participation of military and non-military personnel from the USA, Australia and Sri Lanka.
“This is the 12th year of this exercise and the first time it was conducted in Sri Lanka. The aim of this exercise was to enhance regional cooperation in the fields of medical readiness and preparedness for Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) situations,” Colombage says.
However, others added that the real purpose of the exercise was to test the inter-operability of the participant naval forces. Japan’s role in Colombo Dockyard Ltd.
Japan has been involved in Sri Lankan shipping for long. The 40 year old Colombo Dockyard Ltd. (CDL), one of the most profitable enterprises in Sri Lanka ,is a joint venture between the government of Sri Lanka and Onomichi Dockyard of Kobe, Japan.
In the beginning of 2017, the Sri Lankan Coast Guard (SLCG) placed an order for construction of two 85-meter Offshore Patrol Vessels (OPV) with the CDL to enhance its capabilities in deep sea surveillance.
This project will be undertaken by a loan provided by the Japanese government.
“These two OPVs will have the capability to launch and recover helicopters and small utility boats at sea. They will be the biggest ships of the SLCG and will enhance its capability to a higher level,” Colombage says.
“The building of these two OPVs by CDL is also a boost for the local ship building industry in Sri Lanka. The two ships will be based on a European design and SLCG and Sri Lankan Navy marine and electrical engineers and ship building architects will be able to gain valuable practical experience by engaging in this project,” he adds.
Interestingly, Sri Lankan Navy and the Sri Lankan Coast Guard will be able to utilize their experience in countering maritime terrorism in the construction of these two ships, Adm.Colombage notes.
This will be very useful for the naval forces of India, Japan and US which have no direct experience of fighting non-state actors other than pirates. Sri Lanka on the other hand has fought and won against a very efficient, innovative and deadly Tamil Tiger naval force called the “Sea Tigers”.